Since the prehistoric times the importance of honey was known to mankind of the world. Previously the only method of collection of honey was to go to the forest in search of hives bee. After getting that, the honey collectors used to drive away the bees from the hive of by applying fire or smoke and then collect the honey and wax. After the invention of artificial hive of bees the apiculture has become scientific and commercial. The commercial success of bee keeping depends on the knowledge about honeybees. So a detailed study of the biology of the bees is a sincere or successful implementation of the programme of apiculture.
What is apiculture?
Apiculture is the technique of scientific rearing of honey bees in a specially designed wooden box and without damaging the comb foundation extract honey and wax from their artificial hives.
Method of apiculture: –
The method of apiculture is based on scientific facts which has been developed after the extensive studies of bee behaviour, their functioning and mode of reproduction.
Essential elements for modern beekeeping: –
I) Typical moveable hive.
II) Safety dress.
IV) Knife or hive tool.
V) Honey extractor.
Advantages of modern method of apiculture: –
Several advantages are there in the modern method of apiculture which is as follows:
i) In modern method of apiculture a proper watch on the activities of the bees is possible.
ii) In the monsoon due to rain when the workers are unable to go outside from hive in search of food then concentrated sugar solution, water and pollen like substances can be provided outside the hive for honeybees.
iii) Swarming of bees can be checked by modern hive.
iv) In modern apiculture this same hive can be used again and again, so that the workers give more attention what the honey than for the hive formation.
v) When the climatic condition is not suitable, the hive can be transferred to other safer area.
vi) The protection of the bees from the enemies is better and easy in this method.
vii) Large quantity of pure honey can be obtained from the modern hive.
What is honey?
Honey is a fluid, viscous or crystallised substance of highly nutritive value, produced by bees from nectar of flower which bees collect and transform or combine with substances of their own, told and match your in honey comb Chambers. It is very useful for mankind. Honey and bee wax is the products of apiculture.
What is the process of honey production?
Worker bees collect the nectar, pollen and sucrose from the flowers. These collected materials are then mixed up with the saliva of bees and undergo some chemical changes by the action of enzymes. As a result this sucrose is converted into dextrose and laevulose. The water content in this mixture is also reduced and the whole mixture is then deposited in the crop of bee. When the worker bee reaches the hive, this whole mixture is regurgitated to the strong Chambers of the hive. A strong current of air is produced their by the rapid beating of workers bees wings and as a result, honey is concentrated in the storage Chambers. In this way honey is produced in the comb.
What are the physical properties of honey?
Honey is very much sweet in taste. Honey is hygroscopic substance and if remains in open air it can absorb water. Colour and smell along with taste of honey are variable according to the juices collected from various flowers. After the production of honey in apiculture, before preservation in a bottle mild heat is needed only for prevention of fermentation and crystallisation.
What are the chemical components of honey?
The chemical composition of honey is as follows:
Levulose =38.19%, Dextrose = 21.28%, maltose and other sugar = 8.81%, enzyme and pigments = 2.21%, Ash = 1% and water = 17.20%.