Others Helpful Bacteria






Here we shall discuss about more others helpful bacteria.

Helpful Bacteria in medicines

The helpful Bacteria play an important role in the manufacturing of life saving medicines like antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, screening of carcinogen etc.
[1] Antibiotic production : Antibiotic comes from the word Anti-biosis meaning against life. It is actually secondary metabolites produced by one living organism harmful for another living organism. The first antibiotic Penicillin was reported from a fungi Penicillium notatum, but the bacteria and actinomycetes also have the capability to produce huge number of antibiotic compounds.
[2] Enzyme production: The enzymes like amylase, protease obtained from bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Streptococus have industrial importance. Moreover the bacteria like Micrococcus residing in the stomach of catties and horses help in the digestion of cellulose food with the help of enzyme cellulose.
[3] Vitamin production : B vitamins are commonly produced in the intestine of human beings by Lactobacillus. Vitamin B is also produced by fermentation of polysaccharides by Clostridium acetobutilicum. Production of Vitamin K by Streptococcus hemolytlcus and vitamin C is obtained from Glucanobacter suboxydans.




[4] Dextran production : The synthetic cellulose or dextran is produced by Leuconastoc mesenteroides, which is used in increasing the blood volume under shock.
[5] Screening of carcinogen: The agents responsible for inducing cancer are called carcinogens and they can be identified by testing on bacteria like Salmonella.

Bacteria and research

Bacteria is of great importance as a tool in the biotechnology research, they exhibit transformation and transduction and also contain extra nuclear DNA (Plasmid), which is being utilized in the transfer of the desired DNA segment from one organism to other. These types of genetic manipulation are important in the creation of transgenic organisms.

In sewage treatment

There are various types of domestic and industrial wastes, which need microbial decomposition or mineralization (putrefaction) before their final disposal, in order to render them harmless and recover various inorganic elements like carbon, hydrogen, needed for the plant nutrition. They are also useful in the secondary treatment of water before it is recycled. The process of bacterial decomposition may be either aerobic or anaerobic in nature. The helpful bacteria like Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter are used in aerobic sewage treatment in trickling filters, while Clostridium is used in anaerobic sewage treatment processes.

In pest and mosquito control (Biological control)

The helpful bacteria like Bacillus thuringiensis produces a toxin called B.t. toxin, which is toxic to several insect larvae, some of which are common pests to crop plants. Similarly the endotoxin produced by Bacillus sphaericus and Clostridium bifermentans destroys the mosquito larvae. These are referred to as biopesticide.

In decomposition of chemical herbicide, pesticide and insecticide

The chemical herbicides or pesticides are sprayed on crop plants to combat various diseases. These chemicals go into the soil and remain there for years together causing residual toxicity to different animals including human beings and this may be referred to as the food chain effect. Bacteria like Corynebacttrium, Flavobacterium decompose 2, 4-D, while DDT is being decomposed by Aerobacter aerogenes.




Preparation of silage

Grasses are important fodder for catties and horses and they are protected from being decomposed by the bacteria Lactobacillus.

Preparation of Single Cell Protein (S.C.P)

The helpful bacteria, Escherichia coli are capable of synthesizing protein, but if the gene responsible for this is transferred to a bacteria Methylophilus methylotrophus, then protein synthesis is at its best and the protein rich cells are useful source of dietary proteins, referred to as single cell proteins (S.C.P).

Bio-mining

Bacteria are useful in separating metallic ores from their complex ores, which is called bio-mining. Helpful Bacteria like Thiobacillus, Sulfobus are useful in leaching of metals like copper and iron from their sulphide ores like Chalcopyrites (CuFeS2) and Iron Pyrites (FeS2).

Biological washing powder

The compound Subtilixin obtained from Bacillus licheniformis is used as a washing agent, which is stable at all pH and even can work in presence of calcium ion.


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