If the population growth remains unchecked it is not possible to raise the living standard of the society. It is not desirable that an attempt to increase death rate the best way to get clear of this overwhelming problem is to reduce birth rate by adopting the methods of birth control and family planning. So we can say that the birth control consequences the population control.
Some popular methods of birth control as well as population control are given below:
Temporary methods of population control
These are the reversible methods and these methods are effective as long as used and can be discontinued when the couple desires to have a child. These are used in as spacing methods to delay the first issue or to make longer the interval between births. Temporary methods are of following types:
i) Natural methods
ii) Barrier methods
iii) Intra uterine contraceptive devices
iv) Hormonal methods
Natural methods of birth cum population control
These are very common and simple methods and are based on controlling the act of coitus, requiring no artificial means. But the failure rates of such methods are very high. There are two such methods: -
In this method, during coitus, the penis is withdrawn from vagina just before ejaculation so that semen is not deposited into the vagina.
In Abstinence method during the fertile phase of menstural cycle (i.e., ovulation period) coitus is to be avoided which extends roughly from 8th to 21st day of the cycle. It is also called safe period method. Its reliability can be increased by daily monitoring of body temperature and cervical mucus study. Because, it has been seen that at the time of ovulation, the cervical mucus become more slippery, clear and watery to identify the time of ovulation.
Barrier methods of birth cum population control
The root of this Barrier method is to check live sperms from reaching the ovum by placing some physical or chemical barriers along the path of the sperms before every intercourse. The barriers are may be of two types: physical barriers and chemical barriers. Let us have a brief description.
Physical barriers include condom for men and diaphragm and vaginal sponge for women. Condom is a thin but strong rubber sheath to cover the erect penis to prevent deposition of semen in vagina. Diaphragm and vaginal sponge made up of synthetic material are inserted into vagina cover the cervix of the uterus so that sperms cannot enter in it.
Chemical barriers are spermicidal agents obtainable in various forms e.g., foam tablets, jellies, pastes, creams, suppositories and soluble films that are introduced into vagina before coitus to kill or inactivate the sperms so that they cannot enter into the uterus. When a physical or chemical barrier is used alone, its failure rate is very high but if they are used in combination, they become very effective. So the combination method may be quite useful for the population control.
Intra uterine contraceptive devices for population control
Intra uterine contraceptive devices (lUCD) are small objects that are inserted into the uterus through vagina by a physician to prevent migration of sperms and/or implantation of the fertilized egg. They include non-medicated plastic materials called loop and medicated materials like copper T. This method has many advantages- it is cheap, its insertion is a simple procedure and one time insertion gives continuous protection for a long period and it is effective. It has the facilities of removing it when wanted.
Hormonal methods of birth cum population control
The Hormonal methods involve administration of synthetic female sex hormones i.e., estrogen and progesterone to a woman to prevent pregnancy. A variety of hormonal contraceptives are now available which differ in composition and mode and schedule of administration. They act by preventing ovulation and also by causing thickening of cervical mucus and endometrial changes. The hormonal medicine are broadly of two types:
Oral pills: -The Oral pills include combined pills, progesterone only pills (POP) or minipills and morning after pills.
Depot formulations: -These are long acting, estrogen free preparations containing progesterone, a single administration of which is sufficient to prevent pregnancy for several months or years. They are available in the form of injection, sub-dermal implants and vaginal rings.
Medical termination of pregnancy for population control
Medical termination of pregnancy is a post-conception applicable method of birth control commonly known as induced abortion. In this, pregnancy is intentionally terminated under proper medical supervision before complete development of the fetus. It can be done by administration of drugs or surgically.
Permanent methods of birth cum population control
Permanent methods are irreversible and one-time methods of birth control concerning sterilization of male or female by minor surgical operations which interrupt the normal path of transport of sperm or ovum. Male and female sterilization operations are known as vasectomy and tubectomy respectively. Vasectomy is simpler, safer and cheaper than tubectomy. Such types of operations are recommended for those couples who desire no more children and have at least two living children.
Besides birth control measures Rising the age of marriage will reduce the reproductive life and help in population control. For population control, mass awareness about the problems of overpopulation and the responsibility of every couple to limit their family size is necessary.