Methods of Rearing of Bird for Poultry Farming
There are three methods, those are:
1. Free-range poultry.
2. Semi-intensive poultry,
3. Intensive poultry.
In this system, fowls are allowed to move almost freely. Here a fencing in the boundary is to be constructed and there must be few shady trees. In this system, feeding cost becomes less, because the fowls of poultry farming can collect their own food materials from the surrounding areas.
In this system, fowls are allowed to move freely in the day time but at night they are remained in the cage.
When the birds are confined in a room throughout the day and night, it is called intensive poultry. Out of the various types of intensive system, the deep litter system of rearing of fowls is undoubtedly the best one and this system becomes very popular among the rearers. Another important type is battery cage system, where the birds are reared in cages.
Deep Litter used in poultry farming
The thick bed which is prepared by sawdust and cut hay etc., on the floor of the rearing room of fowls is known as deep litter.
Construction of Deep litter and rearing of fowls in poultry farming
In deep litter system of poultry farming, each bird requires nearly 4-5 sq. ft. space. This safeguards the proper movement of birds. According to the number of birds, the rearing room is to be constructed. In the deep litter system, it is better to use cement floor, otherwise the rearing room is to be constructed on platform which is elevated from the ground. Walls of the room are to be constructed by cement up to three feet height from the floor. Above the walls, a strong wire net with iron frame is to be set up. The roof of the rearing house of poultry firming is constructed by asbestos sheets. Door is made by wire net. The wooden joints are painted with tar.
Before use of deep litter, the rearing room must be carefully cleaned and washed with disinfectants generally with lime. After disinfecting, first saw-dusts are laid on the floor of the rearing room, and then cut hays are spread of six inches thickness. Thus total eight inches thickness of bed is prepared. After preparation of litter, fowls are placed in the room. The number of fowls in a litter depends on the total floor area of the rearing room. The chicks, growers, layers and adult fowls must be kept in separate rearing rooms.
The rearing room of poultry farming must protect the poultry birds from temperature, rain, dampness and excess of humidity. Ventilation and light in the litter are to be provided properly. During rainy and summer seasons and also in cold season the wire nets are covered by cloth; so that the poultry birds are saved from natural calamities.
The fowls while staying in the litter eject excreta on the litter. It is necessary to turn over the hay and sawdust with excreta periodically by a stick. Subsequently bacteria act on the bed and change the deep litter into compost by two months. Generally litter is to be replaced after a year by new one.
ADVANTAGES OF DEEP LITTER SYSTEM IN POULTRY FARMING
i) Security of Poultry birds : While rearing of poultry birds either in free-range or in semi-intensive methods, the enemies may attack the birds and cause damage to the poultry birds. But in deep litter system, the poultry birds are not facing such problems as they remain always in a confined room.
ii) Litter used as food : Poultry birds collect some elements of food from litter. such as animal protein factor. They are also getting Vitamin B2 as it synthesized in the litter.
iii) Control of diseases: Poultry birds in deep litter system suffer less by coccidiosis and worms than rearing in free-range or semi-intensive systems.
iv) Save of labours: In deep litter system, there is no trouble of clearing of excreta; though there is necessity to turn over the litter periodically by a stick.
v) Production of manure : By bacterial action, the litter is changed into dry decompose which is a good manure. This manure is utilized in agricultural field.
vi) Save from natural calamities : In deep litter, poultry birds are saved from rains, cold waves and heat. In the litter, constant temperature is maintained ; so fowls are also getting this constant temperature.
vii) Healthy environment : Poultry birds scratch the litter by their claws on the legs. As a result, they made muscular exercise. Moreover, tendency of fighting to each other is also decreased.
DISADVANTAGES OF DEEP LITTER SYSTEM IN POULTRY FARMING
(i) The litter of the rearing room is to be kept always dry. If there is damp, litter to be replaced. Hence proper observation is essential.
(ii) If a fowl is attacked by an epidemic disease then all the fowls of a litter may be attached by the disease.
(iii) In some cases, the fowls of a litter fight with each other for food.