Poultry Feed required for farming
In poultry farming, it is necessary to arrange for the proper nutritious foods in adequate quantity. Poultry rearers can purchase the synthetic food or mash from the market or they can prepare the balanced food. The food includes the following
(i) Carbohydrates, such as rice bran, wheat bran, maize etc.
(ii) Proteins, such as fish meal, skimmed-milk, meat.
(iii) Fats, such as mustard seed, shark liver oil.
(iv) Minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus, manganese.
(v) Vitamins, such as A, D and Riboflabin.
Poultry keeper should have good idea about the amount of poultry feed allowed to the fowls at different stages of the life span and type of breeds at poultry farm. The best diet may be recommended as fallow:
Maize meal.........................................20 parts.
Ground oat.........................................20 parts.
Wheat bran.........................................40 parts.
Earthnut meal......................................20 parts.
Common salt.........................................1 part.
A good amount of green food (fresh tender grass, garlic, onion, lettuce etc.) should be given in uncooked condition. Calcium should also be given with the above food.
Equipments required for Poultry Feed
The important equipment which are required for poultry farming are—(a) Feeder, (b) Waterer
It is the container in which poultry feed is given to the poultry birds. Feeder should be such that it is easy for the poultry birds to eat but at the same time must not allow the birds to sit on the feeder and to spoil the poultry feed. Several types of automatically controlled mechanical feeders are available in the market.
These are containers to supply water to the poultry birds. These containers are roomy but not inconvenient for the poultry birds to drink from it and at the same time fowls must not be allowed to spoil the water by their droppings. Different types of waterers are available in the market. Whatever might be the design of the waterers, it is necessary to ensure that the supply-water must be clean and the waterer can be cleaned easily and at regular interval.
Other instruments required for farming besides poultry feed
It is an equipment which is used for artificially incubating fertilized eggs by providing the required temperature. In addition to required temperature (100°— 300°F), the incubator also provides fresh air and humidity. In commercial farming, incubator is essential. Generally, incubators are of two types, such as Flat type and Cabinet type. Generally 50-500 fertilized eggs are incubated in a Flat type inenbator. But in Cabinet type, 50—5000 fertilized eggs are inculated at the same time. Some precautionary measures are to be taken in incubator, such as—
(i) Before use, the incubator is to be disinfected either by fumigation or formaldehyde. .
(ii) Inside the incubator, proper flow of air and required temperature are to be upheld.
(iii) Proper arrangement of fertilized eggs is to be maintained.
(iv) After 21 days of incubation, there is hatching of young ones. But in incubator, the eggs are alternated up to 18 days ; after hatching, the young are kept inside the incubator up to 36 hours ; during this period no food is required for young ones.
This is equipment with sharp blade. This equipment is used for cutting the upper beak of chicks.
Diseases and their Control in Poultry Birds
Only proper poultry feed is not enough for the poultry firming. It has been observed that various diseases of poultry birds affect the poultry industry. Most of the poultry diseases are extremely infectious. So the prevention of disease is more important than treatment of the diseased birds. Hence the poultry rearers must ensure the following matters:
i) Cleanliness with light and ventilation of rearing room are to be maintained.
ii) Clean water and balanced poultry feed are to be given to the birds.
iii) Healthy birds are to be selected for rearing.
iv) Poultry birds are to be regularly examined for external parasites.
V) Proper vaccinations are to be given to the poultry birds.