Types of Fruits





What is Fruits?

The fruits are defined as modified and transformed seed bearing structures developing usually after fertilization from the ovaries of the flowers.
On the basis of morphological characteristics, the fruits may be classified into 3 major types, viz., Simple, Aggregate and Multiple fruits.

Simple fruits

The simple types of fruits arise from the ovary of a single flower with or without accessory parts. On the basis of the structure and consistency of the epicarp, the simple fruits are divided into two groups ; those are, dry and fleshy fruits.

Dry fruits

They are socalled because the pericarp is dry, and its texture may be membranous, leathery or woody. On the basis of dehiscence, the dry fruits are of 3 types viz., dehiscent, indehiscent and schizocarpic.




[1] Dry dehiscent fruit : They are so called because after ripening, these fruits burst automatically, splitting the pericarp into different parts and liberate their seeds. They are of the following types :

(A) Legume or Pod

beans
Beans

Example :Pea, Bean, Pulses.
Characteristics :
[i] The fruit is dry and many seeded.
[ii] They develop from simple, superior, monocarpellary, one-chambered ovary.
[iii] The lines of dehiscence run along both the margins.

(B) Follicle

Celotropis
Celotropis

Example: Calotropis.
Characteristics :
[i] It is a dry, many seeded, dehiscent fruit like legume.
[ii] It develops from a superior, monocarpellary ovary.
[iii] The dehiscence takes place along the ventral suture only.

(C)Siliqua

Example:mustard.
Characteristics :
[i] This types of fruits develop from a superior bicarpellary ovary.
[ii]The ovary is initially one-chambered, later becoming two-chambered by false septum called replum.
[iii] The dehiscence takes place along both the margins from base to apex.
[iv] There are many seeds present, attached to the replum.

(D)Capsule

Example: Castor, Datura, Poppy.
Characteristics :
[i] The fruit arises from many-chambered, superior ovary.

Poppy
Poppy

[ii] The ovary is also multicarpellary, syncarpous in nature.
[iii] The fruit is dry, many seeded, dehiscent fruit.
[iv] The dehiscence may be of various types and they are of the following types:-
[a]Poricidal: The pores are formed on the apical part of the capsule through which the seeds are lost. e.g. poppy.
[b] Circumsessile: The dehiscence takes place along the central circular line, purslane.
[c]Loculicidal: The dehiscence takes place along the dorsal suture from locule or chamber separately, e.g. lady's finger.
[d]Septicidal: The dehiscence are brought about by valves, the valves are for by splitting along.the septum at an early stage, e.g. Linum(linseed).
[e]Septifragal: The valves are formed at a later stage, they fall off after dehisce but the seeds remain attached to the central axis. e.g. Datura.

[2] Indehiscent fruits

These types of fruits are single seeded. They do not burst or open into valves on ripening as in the previous cases. Hence the seeds are only liber after the decaying of the pericarp. They are of the following types :

[a] Caryopsis (grain)

Paddy
Paddy

Example: Paddy, Maize.
Characteristics :
[i] Thistypes of fruits are dry, indehiscent, one-seeded.
[ii] They develop from a superior, monocarpellary ovary.
iii] They pericarp or the fruit coat is fused with the testa or the' seed coat.

[b] Achene

Example: Mirabilis.
Characteristics :
[i] The fruit is small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded.
[ii] The fruit develops from a superior or sometimes inferior monocarpellary ovary.
[iii] The pericarp is thin and free from the seed coat.

[c] Nut or Glans :

Litchi
Litchi

Example: Oak, Litchi, Cashewnut.
Characteristics :
[i] The fruit is dry, indehiscent, one-seeded in nature.
[ii] The fruit develops from a syncarpous, superior, bi or polycarpellary ovary.
[iii] The pericarp texture may be of various types i.e., hard, soft, woody or leathery.
[iv] Sometimes the fruit of nut may be separated into smaller units called nutletse.g. Leonurus.



[d] Cypsela

Example: Sunflower.
Characteristics :
[i] These are dry, indehiscent, one-seeded types of fruits.
[ii] The pericarp is free from the testa.
[iii] The fruit develops from an inferior, bicarpellary ovary.

[e] Utricle :

Basella
Basella

Example:Basella.
Characteristics :
[i] The fruit is dry, one or few seeded in nature.
[ii] The pericarp is thin, membranous and loose in nature.
[iii] The fruit develops from superior, monocarpellary ovary.
[c] Schizocarpicfruits : (Splitting fruits):
These fruits are special type of dry fruit which when matured, split up to expose the one-seeded indehiscent parts. The number of these indehiscent components are equal to the number of carpels. These indehiscent components are also called mericarp. They are of the following types :

(1)Lomentum:

Example: Mimosa, Acacia.
Characteristics :
[i] This types of fruits are dry, appear like a legume.
[ii] The fruit is many seeded with constrictions in between.
[iii] The fruit develops from a superior, monocarpellary ovary.
[iv] The fruit wall is echinulate.
[v] The fruit on maturity splits up transversely.

(2)Cremocarp:

Example: Coriandrum, Anise, Fennel.
Characteristics :
[i] It is a dry, two-seeded fruit.
[ii] It develops from a syncarpous, inferior, bicarpellary ovary.
[iii] It splits open from upper to the lower side into one-seeded parts called mencarp.
[iv] Themericarps may be provided with oil ducts or vittae.
[v] The mericarps remain attached to a common axis.

(3)Carcerule:

Example: Salvia.
Characteristics :
[i] The fruit is small, dry in nature.
[ii] It arises from a superior, syncarpous ovary.
[iii] The ovary is initially two chambered, later becoming four-chambered development of the transverse septum.
[iv[ This types of fruits split up into four, one-seeded indehiscent parts.

(4)Regma:

Castor
Castor

Example: castor.
Characteristics :
[i] The dry fruit developing from a superior, syncarpous ovary.
[ii] The ovary is many-chambered, containing three or many carpels.
[iii] On maturity, the fruit splits up into many indehiscent parts called cocci, which corresponds to the number of carpels.
[iv] Eachcoccus consists of one or two seeds, which is liberated by decaying of the pericarp.

(5)Samara :

Example: Hiptage.
Characteristics :
[i] The dry fruit develops frommany-chambered, polycarpellary, syncarpous ovary.
fii] It splits up into several indehiscent winged components that corresponds to the number of carpels.
[iii] Each component encloses a seed.
[iv] The wing-like projections of the pericarp help in the dispersal.
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