Now we have the chance to discuss about the branches of biology. Biology is mainly divided into two major branches: (i) Botany and (ii) zoology. The branch of biological science which deals with the plant kingdom is known as botany and otherwise the branch of biological science which deals with the animal kingdom is known as zoology. Both of botany and zoology are developing into pure and applied branches. In the pure branches the theories and concepts are in the area of study and the application of those theories for the welfare of the human beings are dealt in the applied branches.
Pure branches of Biology:
The pure branch of biology is also divided into some branches, such as: -
i) Morphology: This branch deals with the shape external structures of living organism.
ii) Anatomy: This branch deals with the gross structure of the internal organs.
iii) Cytology: This branch studies with the structure and functions of the cell.
iv) Histology: This branch deals with the structure and composition of tissues.
v) Physiology: It is the branch deals with the functional activities of leaving body.
vi) Ecology: This branch studies about the relationship between the organism and their environment.
vii) Embryology: The formation and development of embryo is the matter of study here.
viii) Genetics: In the branches of biology the genetic branch deals with the heredity and variation of living body.
ix) Palaeontology: This deals with the principles of formation of fossils, its evaluation and its time scale.
x) Taxonomy: This branch works with the principles of classification of organism and their nomenclature.
xi) Evolution: The origin and gradual complexities of animals and plants are deal by this branch of biology.
xii) Pathology: Pathology deals with the diseases of the living organism.
Applied Branches of Biology:
The applied branches of biology are divided into two main streams.
i) Applied Botany: Some important branches of applied botany are
a) Agriculture: this deals with the crops.
b) Horticulture: It Deals with the formation and maintenance of the garden.
c) Pharmacognosy: Works for the separation of active principles of medicine from organism.
d) Forestry: Works for conservation of forest.
ii) Applied zoology: Some important branches of applied zoology are given here:
a) Sericulture: Works for rearing of silkworms.
b) Apiculture: This deals for rearing of honey bees.
c) Lac Culture: Works with rearing of lac-insects.
d) Poultry: deals for rearing of fowl, duck etc.
e) Pisciculture: Works for rearing and cultivation of fish.
f) Animal husbandry: This branch deals with the rearing and cultivation of cattle-like domestic animals.
In Some different branches of science biology has become very importance in this millennium. With the above idea of the branches of biology, let us have some idea of the biological importance in other branches of science.
1) Biotechnology: It means technical manipulation of living organism. Genetically modified and improved variety of crops and successfully clone animals and plant has been produced by the biotechnology.
2) Bioinformatics: It is the systematic development and application of computing system in biological process.
3) Genetic Engineering: Extracting of selected genes from an organism or synthesizing of selected genes is inserted of to another organism and as a result, an organism develops with a new combination of gens by the genetic engineering. Bad gens may replaced by good genes and the scope of rectification of hereditary diseases has become open.
4) Biomedical Engineering: Better production of spare parts for human beings for external use and internal implantation are the subject of Biomedical Engineering.
5) Environment Management: It deals with the environmental observation and finding out the solution to maintain the balance of the nature.
6) Forensic Science: It deals with the knowledge of DNA, finger prints, blood typing etc. for the criminal activities, civil and criminal laws.
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