What is culture fishery?
The culture fishery may defined as the places of confined freshwater areas from where the fishes are not only captured but also rearing and breeding of fishes have been done in these places. These culture fishery is being done in ponds, the scientific basis of rearing, breeding and also the transport of fishes have been done and in real sense this is regarded as the fishery.
Edible fishes in ponds and ditches:
There are various forms of fishes which are edible in the ponds, but the major carps are the most important due to their high food value and demand in the market. The indigenous major carps are: Catla (Catla catla), Rohu (Labeo rohita), Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and Kalbasu (Labeo Kalbasu) etc. Moreover Barbus stigma, Barbus tic to, Clarias batrachus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Anabas testudines, Channa triatus, Channa punctatus are also important among the sweet water fishes. The culture fishery is mainly carried on in sweet or freshwater ponds.
Culture of Indigenous carps in pond:
The knowledge of the nature of the pond where the cultivation of carp culture programme has been taken in account, is very essential for the success of carp culture. A person associated with culture fishery must know in which environment the fishes thrive well. He should know about what type of food the fishes desire and how the balanced diet of the fishes can be arranged. It is very essential to arrange a good type of fresh water pond for carp culture. Some essential factors of culture fishery are briefly described below:
The production of carp is largely depend on pond water, specially the physical and chemical nature of water. So for the proper growth of carp fishes, the appropriate physical and chemical nature of the pond water are to be maintained.the depth of water, temperature, turbidity of water and sun rays are all influencing the growth of the fish as well as the culture fishery.
It has been observed that the aquatic plants which are the food of the carps grows well up to the depth of two meters of pod water; if there is no scarcity of plant food, the production of the fishes will be good. The health of indigenous carps depends on the temperature of the pond water. In a temperature between 18 degree centigrade to 37 degree centigrade of pond water the carps are feeling well. If the pond water is turbid, the sun rays fail to penetrate inside such water. As a result, the production of aquatic plant also decreases and so, there will be deficiency of natural food to carp fishes. In consequent the production of carps will be less. If there are large number of big trees surrounding the pond, the ray of sun can not come properly on the pond water, as a result the production of carps also be affected.
The chemical nature of the pond, such as pH of water, oxygen in water is also influencing the carp production, which is in addition to the above physical conditions. The proper culture fishery may take place in the appropriate alkalinity of pond water and alkalinity of water must be maintained between the pH 7.5 to pH 8.5. On the other hand, if the water of the pond becomes acidic, the growth of carps will also disturbed and the carp become easily susceptible to various diseases and ultimately there will be loos in the fish production.
Feeding layers of carps:
Indigenous and the carp imported from other countries are living in the different layers of water in a pond. So, the different kinds of carps can be cultured in the same pond and the food also become economical.all these carps are remain mainly in the three different layers in the pond and they used to collect their own food from their own specific layer.
But it should be kept in mind for the culture fishery that all the indigenous major carps are depending mainly on the aquatic plant as their food materials. Hence they are known as herbivorous fish. But there is a limited resource of the aquatic plant food in the pond. So it is required to intensive cultivate of aquatic plant in the pond for the storage and supply of sufficient food for the cultivated fishes.
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