Plant Kingdom Classification

What is relation of plant kingdom classification with taxonomy?

The rules and regulations based on which a classification system is created actually provided by taxonomy. So it is very easy to say that taxonomy provides the theoretical basis of classification. In the form of international codes the principles of taxonomy are updated regularly. Classification system also can be changed, but it is only up to a certain extent, otherwise a new system is created. The development of taxonomy has taken place from classical to numerical taxonomy, whereas the classification system started as an artificial method then became natural and ultimately is phylogenetic in nature. In the gradual evolution of plant kingdom classification system the taxonomical views have always helped.

Now let us get a look on the plant kingdom classification.


Virus under the phylum vira and divided them into two sub-phyla, five classes, eight orders and twenty one families. The outline is as follows:
Sub-phylum –
1) Dexyvira, it containing DNA
→Deoxyhelica : (Helical) e.g. Pox virus
→Deoxycubica: (Cubical) e.g. Herpes virus
→ Deoxybinala: (Bisymmetrical) e.g. Phage virus
2) Ribovira, it containing RNA
→Ribohelica : (Helical) e.g. Myxo virus
→ Ribocubica : (Cubical) e.g. Arbo virus.


In plant kingdom classification considered bacteria under the class Schizomycetesand divided it into ten orders that include Actionomycetes, Mycoplasma and Spirochaetae. The outline of this classification is given as fallow:
[1] Eubacteriales (true bacteria): e.g. Azotobacter, Bacillus, Rhizobium.
[2] Pseudomonadales (Pigmanted sulphur bacteria): e.g. Chromatium, Chlorobium, Nitroso monas Desulphovibrio.
[3] Beggiatoales (Filamentous sulphur bacteria) : e.g. Beggiatoa.
[4] Caryophanales (Filamentous Sheathed bacteria) : e.g. Caryophanon.
[5] Chlamydo-bacteriales (Filamentous Iron bacteria) : e.g. Sphaerotilus.
[6] Hyphomicro-biales (Budding-bacteria) : e.g. Hyphomicrobium, Rhodomicrobium.
[7] Myxobacteria (Slime bacteria) : e.g. Cytophaga
[8] Actinomyce-tales (Actinomycetes) : e.g. Streptomuces, Mycobacterium.
[9] Mycoplas-matales (Pleuro pneumo¬nia like organism) : e.g. Mycoplasma
[10] Spirochae-tales (Spirochaetes) : e.g. Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira.


In recent plant kingdom classification, algae were divided into 9 divisions. They named all the groups as phyco(= algae) phyta excluding the procaryatic blue green algae. The classification is as follows:
[i]Cyanochoronta(Blue Green algae)
fii]Chlorophycophyta(Green algae)
[iii]Charophycophyta(Dendrobial green algae)
[v]Phaeophycophyta(Brown algae)
[vi]Chrysophycophyta(Golden brown algae)
[ix]Rhodophycophyta(Red algae)


The most recent Plant kingdom classification, in which fungi was divided into Myxomycota and Eumycota, the former was directly divided into four classes, while the latter was divided into 5 sub-divisions and 17 classes, as detailed below:

MYXOMYCOTA (Presence of Plasmodium)

i) Acrasiomycetes
ii) Labyrinthulales
iii) Myxomycetes
iv) Plasmodio-phoromycetes

EUMYCOTA (Absence of Plasmodium)

i) Chytridiomycetes
ii) Hyphochytri-diomycetes
iii) Oomycetes
i) Zygomycetes
ii) Thchomycetes
i) Hemiascomycetes
ii) Loculoascomycetes
iii) Plectomycetes
iv) Laboulbeniomycetes
v) Pyrenomycetes
vi) Discomycetes
i) Teliomycetes
ii) Hynienomycetes
iii) Gasteromycetes
i) Blastomycetes
ii) Hyphomycetes
iii) Coelomycetes


The bryophytes include a group of amphibious plant kingdom classification, which can survive both in land and water. A detailed classification of bryophytes is as follows :
i) Hepaticopsida →
1) Marchantiales e.g. Riccia
2) Sphaerocarpales e.g. Sphaemcarpus
3) Jungermanniales e.g. Pellia

ii) Anthocerotopsida → Anthocerotales e.g. : Anthoceros
iii) Bryopsida

1) Calobryales e.g. Calobryum
2) Sphagnales e. g. Sphagnum
3) Andreaealas e.g. Andreaea1
4) Bryales e.g. Pogonatum


This group of plant kingdom classification is known as the first terrestrial vascular plants because they have true xylem and phloem. The most detailed classification of pteridophytes, where it was divided into 4 divisions, 4 classes and 17 orders. It is as follows:
1. Division I :Psilophyta
Class I:Psilophytinae.
Order I :Psilophytales (fossil).
Order II: Psilotales(Psilotum).
2. Division II :Lepidophyta
Class IILycopodinae.
Order IIILepidodendrales (fossil).
Order IVLycopodiales(Lycopodiuin).
Order VSelaginellales(Selaginella).
Order VIIsoetales(Isoetes).
3. Division III : Caamophyta
Class IIIEquisetinae.
Order VIIHyeniales (fossil).
Order VIIISphenophyllales (fossil).
Order IXEquisetales(Equisetum). 4. Division IV :Pterophyta
Class IVFilicinae.
Sub-class IPrimofilicales.
Order XArcheopteridales (fossil).
Order XIProtopteridales (fossil).
Order XIICoenopteridales (fossil).
Sub-Class IIEusporangiatae (Sporangia borne in son).
Order XIIIMarattiales(Marattia).
Order XIVOphioglossales(Ophioglossuni).
Sub-Class IIILeptosporangiatae (Sporangia borne in son).
Order XVMarsileales(Marsiled).
Order XVISalvineales(Salvinea).
Order XVIIFilicales(Dryopteris).


The gymnosperms belong to a group of plant kingdom classification which is naked seeded. Here is a comprehensive classification of gymnosperms, in which the group has been divided into 3 divisions and 9 classes. The classification is as follows:
[1] Division I: Cycadophyta
Class 1 :Pteridospermospida—6 orders: Lyginopteridales to Caytontiales
(all fossil members).
Class 2 :Cycadopsida- Order—Cycadales-e.g. : Cycas.
Class 3 :Pentoxylopsida- Order—Pentoxylales (fossil).
Class 4 :Cycadeoideopsida- Order—Cycadeoidales
[2] Division II :Coniferophyta
Class 5 :Coniferopsida- Order—Cordaitales (fossil).
Order—Coniferales-e.g. :Pinus. Order—Ginkgoales-e.g. Ginkgo.
Class 6 :Ephedropsida- Order—Ephedrales. e.g. Ephedra.
Class 7 :Czekanowskiopsida - Order—Czekanowskiales (fossil).
Class 8 :Taxopsida- Order—Taxalese.g. Taxus.
[3] Division III :Chlamydospermophyta
Class : Gnetopsida- Order—Gnetalese.g. Gnetum.
Order—Welwitschialese.g. Welwitschia.


The angiosperms or the flowering plants are the highest evolved organisms in the plant kingdom classification.
C. Bentham and J. D. Hooker (1862 —1883) divided angiosperms into 200 families and the broad divisions are as follows:
Division : Angiosperms
Class: a) Dicotyledons
i) Polypetalae► series:
1) Thalamiflorae
2) Disciflorae
3) Calyciflorae
ii) Gamopetalae► Series:
1) Inferae
2) Heteromerae
3) Bicarpelatae
iii) Monochlamydae ► Series:
1) — Curvembryae
2) — Multiovulate quaticae
3) —Multiovulate terrestries
4) — Microembryae
5) — Daphnales
6) — Achlamydosporae
7) — unisexualis
8) — Ordines anomalae
Class: b) Monocotyledons ► Series:
1) — Microspermae
2) — Epigynae
3) — Coronarieae
4) — Calycineae
5) — Nudiflorae
6) — Apocarpae
7) — Glumaceae